JAPANESE EDUCATION

Japan is admired internationally for not only the miracle economic development in a short time, but also the Japanese personality: honesty, humility, sensitivity, dominant spirit of teamwork, a sense of community, respect for the people around, extreme discretion, prudence, but creativity and perfection in work, or from the Japanese people’s way of educating human morality.

Summary: Japan is admired internationally for not only the miracle economic development in a short time, but also the Japanese personality: honesty, humility, sensitivity, dominant spirit of teamwork, a sense of community, respect for the people around, extreme discretion, prudence, but creativity and perfection in work, or from the Japanese people’s way of educating human morality. In addition, Japan is also the nation with the highest life expectancy in the world, the main cause is due to scientific and temperate diet. Japanese children are educated about ethics not only from the family, the school, but also by society. All subjects are responsible for moral education and take place in daily activities, not just in books and not just in civics. Students from kindergarten, even in daily activities, are practicing virtuous behaviors such as codes of conduct, greetings, thanks to parents, teachers, over-age people and friends. Every morning, children lined up in class, respectfully greet the teacher before the start of the new day. Student lunch is also a class where children are taught self-esteem, take care of themselves, serve friends, and gratitude. At the end of the class, they greet teachers, friends, self-assess and scavenge around before leaving. During the learning process, children are instructed and reminded to use the words "thank you" and "apologize" in appropriate situations. Japanese parents have some principles of parenting such as: Intelligence, good study is good, but it is important to have good personality; They care about the environment of parenting; Never form a bad habit for a child; Respect children, always tell the truth, do not lie to others in front of children; Diet for children must be balanced, do not force children to eat; Meals must be taken in the dining chair and dining table. Currently, Japanese people are interested in early education for children and Shichida's 0-6-year-old education method is popular and popular. It is an educational method that nurtures the soul, nurtures love for all people, nurtures dreams, wills, takes "intellectual education", "moral education", "physical education" and "practical education" as the basis, towards the whole personality education and right brain development. Shichida argues that education for the development of the right brain is not just about focusing on the child's academic achievement, but one of its miraculous results is that all children develop their mind in a gentle and harmonious way, and the child manifests a variety of sensations of compassion, imagination and creativity. It nourishes love, creates the unity of the senses (hearing, sight, touch …) and the important thing is great cooperation between parents and children. Early education and brain development education will shape the future of the world because one of the goals of education is to create a better world. This is the natural result of right brain development education, love and collaboration-based learning methods. Conversely, " left right brain development education is to create confrontation and competition" -Shichida. Recently, the Japanese school is interested in teaching and training students: before speaking, before the action, need to think about how your partner will think, how to react? In other words, put yourself in the position of others before speaking and acting to not hurt others. Shichida is the initiator of education to balance the right and left brain.  

 

Contents: Having arrived in 80 different countries around the world, but after 20 years living in Japan, Jewish mathematician Peter Frankl had to admit that he admired Japan and Japan's education – a modern and wonderful education. It is difficult to talk about a modern, wonderful and well-known education in a brief article, but Lucy Crehan is a British educator and educational researcher who has met many teachers and parentsto provide new and accurate views on Japanese education said: The spirit of collective work, the moral lessons and action always towards the goal are the core values of education in cherry blossom country.

1. The spirit of collective work From elementary school, for most of the time, students are learning and working in groups. What makes many people feel surprised is the behavior of elementary school students in Japan, "students are allowed to stand up, free to walk around the classroom even while classes are underway and it's almost impossible to do anything except “dangerous things”. These expressions are considered "bad" and completely contrary to the previous thought and pattern. Those surprises, however, are part of a series of policies intended by the Japanese government for elementary school children. Rather than spend the first few years of primary school teaching students the importance of following the teacher's instructions, the Japanese consider that this is the time for them to realize what is suitable and what they like. In addition, even at the elementary level, directing children into group activities is always a priority, most of the activities of primary students are organized in small groups, therefore, learning seems to be a natural social activity. When a student leaves his chair, does not participate in activities, the teacher will gently reminisce: "The Golden Team is not ready yet!". This remind makes the other students in the team to take interest and ask their friends to be more active for the benefit of the group. Upon the elementary level, students must participate in clubs to learn how to work in groups, through this, children learn to cultivate their collective spirit, motivate them to grow, explore themselves and discover life. These activities also help children create a close relationship with friends and teachers, improve communication skills, behavior… During the course of the activity, there will be many situations where the child can practice the treatment, through it, teachers will grasp the character of the child to timely motivate or train. This education makes children aware that they are a necessary part of the group and are proud of achieving achievement as a team. These emotions and beliefs are very important in Japanese society, which will follow each individual throughout their life.

 

2. Moral education In addition to the specialized classes, the human values are taught by the teachers through the moral lessons. This content is usually held once a week and throughout the life of the student with the common criterion:  "Develop a Japanese class of people who will never forget the spirit of respect for the people around them, always carry that sense at home, at school or anywhere in the society in which we are a member; strive for creativity, for a rich culture with personality and for the development of a democratic country; voluntarily devote to a peaceful society”. Such lessons will largely depend on the teachers, there are no specific rules, but the objectives of the lessons are set by the Ministry of Education. Mostly, students will be told about a story or certain situation. Next, they will discuss in groups and finally share their thoughts, ideas and what to do and why in each situation before the class. Children are educated about ethics not only from the family, the school, but also by society. All subject areas are responsible for moral education, not just subjects such as civics. Moral training will take place in daily activities, not just in books. Kindergarten students have been practicing morality in daily activities such as the rules of conduct, such as greetings, thanks to parents, teachers, older people and friends. During the course of learning and playing,  children are instructed and trained to use the expressions of thanks and apologies in appropriate situations. Every morning, children lined up in class, solemnly greet the teacher before the start of the new day. Student lunch is also a lesson where children are taught to be independent and take care of themselves, serve friends and gratitude: Trẻ được phân công phục vụ đồ ăn cho các bạn, mặc đồng phục như một người phục vụ thật sự: giáo viên sẽ múc thức ăn vào bát, rót sữa vào ly, và trẻ sẽ bưng đến bàn cho các bạn… Children are assigned to serve food for friends, wear a uniform as a real waiter: The teacher will take the food into the bowl, pour the milk into the glass, and the child will bring onto the table for friends… After that, the children served in the same day will stand in front of the class to wish you good appetite, then friends will say thank you. Before eating, they all said "Itadakimasu" (I am grateful to receive food), after eating, will say "Gochisosamadeshita" (Thank you for the meal), both of which are also directed at kindergarten. They bring their own tray after eating to the place of cleaning, self-dressing, self-cover sheets, self-folding pillow and mattress after nap. It can be said that at the beginning of kindergarten, children learn the first important lessons about how to behave (thank you and apologize), responsibility for work (wearing uniforms), sharing responsibility in the collective (in turn take charge of food service), independence (self-serving) and above all, they must learn diligence, hard work and respect for the truth. At the end of the class, they greet teachers, friends, self-assess and scavenge around before leaving. As they get older, entering the universal education system from grade 1 to grade 9, they will learn and practice moral lessons with a program that is divided into 4 contact groups from near to far, from easy to difficult.

Group 1 is related to self, group 2 is related to other people, group is related to collective, society and group 4 is related to the natural world and beautiful things. Students are taught all 4 groups, but at different ages they learn and practice differently. Eg: a.     Group related to self: Lower grades are learned and practiced in health and safety; respecting things and money; neat and tidy; life with the right rules; performing duties; judging good and evil; integrity; developing personality and creative attitude; awareness of the importance of civilized behavior. Middle grades are learned and practiced on autonomy; life in moderation; deep thoughts; sorry and repent; resoluting, being indomitable; brave, righteous and pure. The upper grades are learned about abstinence; how to respond to criticism, respect for the truth; setting goals; freedom; honesty; tracing the truth; creativity; self evaluation. High school students learn and practice their habits and expected life; health; moderate; harmonious life; hope and courage; self-control, self-responsibility; ideal performance; self-direction and personal development.  b.     Group related to other people: Lower grades are learned and practiced in the greetings; use of terms; movement; friendly affection for young children, the elderly; friendship; gratefulness. Middle grades are learned and practiced in ritual; attention; knowing, trusting and helping each other; reverence and gratitude. . The upper grades are learned and practiced in male-female co-operation; modesty; Gratitude and repayment. High school students learn and practice ritual; Human love; respect for friendship; knowledge of the opposite sex; respect for personality; learning. c.     Group related to collective and society: Lower grades are learned and practiced in the respect for the law; protection of the public; respect for parents; love of family; love of school; love of your hometown. Middle grades are learned and practiced in merit; hard work; love family; love of school; love of home; love of the country; international knowledge. The upper grades are learned and practiced in collective activities, performance of obligations; equity; serving society; family love; school love; home love; country love; International friendship. High school students are learned and practiced in enhancing collective life; compliance with laws; social cohesion; eliminating prejudice, discrimination; social and public welfare development; family love; school love; home love; country love; International dedication. d.     Group related to the natural world and beautiful things: Lower grades are learned and practiced in love, protection of animals and plants; respect for life; devotion. Middle grades are learned and practiced in the thrill of nature; the touch of what is beautiful. The upper grades are learned and practiced in protection of the natural environment; respect for their lives and others; touching hearts; reverence. High school students are taught and practiced in the protection of the natural environment; respect for their lives and others; touching hearts; reverence. Schools do not crave a lot of knowledge but only choose the most basic things to teach children, so that children have a solid foundation that develops rather than teach them unrealistic big things. The consequence of this comprehensive educational method has been demonstrated by the consciousness of the whole Japanese community, which is also institutionalized. Only in Japan, do people find the "Action Manual for the whole people", including more than 200 articles, to specify what to do, the ban on work, violation will result in a fine. For example: "If you see any place where the tap is flowing without the user, close the tap immediately; see the fan turns, see the lights without the user, must turn off immediately ". Ethical education in Japan is highly effective because it has a close association between family, school and society. For example, children are educated in detail, full practiced from the parent’s education for the project "Protecting the surrounding environment" . At school, students from primary school to the end of High School, for more than 10 years, students must clean the school and public places in the school everyday. (Refer to some of the content discussed in the group, in the classroom for Japanese students in the below subject of moral education).

3.     Targeted actions Most schools in Japan have sports or annual events that aim to "build solidarity, encourage individual effort, encourage individual efforts, dedication and perseverance”. In addition, picnics are also often held to "broaden the student's understanding of nature and the surrounding world with interesting and memorable activities, and train students to have appropriate behavior in public”. From High School, the schools organize many sports clubs, music, and other hobby clubs. Japanese students consider extracurricular activities as well as formal classes. These collective activities will help students to understand the focus, efforts for themselves, develop the ability to cooperate and work in groups, as well as how to resolve conflicts in the collective. Weekly, daily activities also have a goal attached and students can participate in the discussion. In addition, there is a culture  in examining whether the goal is achieved after each activity ends. At the end of the activity, the groups will gather and together shout the slogan as: "Do we have good cooperation?", " Do we maximize the time?"… Children sow seeds at school gardens, using emotional words such as “please grow up", "let bloom beautifully”. Gentle inquiries or emergency help falling children in the playground; Instructing guests to the teacher room. In addition, the trend of linking education among different subjects also appear such as links with Life, General study time with study tour in Social subjects, writing a thank-you letter for after-school help outside the school. In conducting peace education, human right education, environmental education, dental and health week, school lunch week, traffic safety week, etc., while studying together or working individually can also help students grow up morally. Assessing the value of an educational method is not easy. However, one point that the whole world must recognize is that Japan's education has created a generation of hardworking, dedicated people with the work, people with collaboration in labor, in research and in the sense of high discipline.  Some contents developed by teachers for students to discuss in the subject of moral education as follows.   – Have you ever steal and lie? Take the example of lying that makes you shame. – If you go abroad, What will you do for the Japanese to be respected? – What does humanity mean? Why help the elderly, children, women, the disabled? Why support and help the poorer countries? – In production, if you discipline, it will limit damage due to fire becuase of careless. Have you ever been careless to have consequences for your personal and family? – Why should line up and follow the social order? – What do you think about verbal abuse? Are there any alternatives to verbal abuse? – Why to speak small in public? Why must have the observation to be in the crowd? – Why we should not eat bushmeat and wildlife meat? Why use only farmed animals? – At present, the habits of eating dog, cat, bird, snake of Chinese and Asian countries … are also affected by the habit of eating bushmeat and wildlife meat. What do you think about that and are you willing to give up this habit?– What do you think of Japanese belief that eating whale meat is nutritious? (Many countries around the world have condemned this, as a growing number of Japanese older people still reserve the idea of eating whales, despite the criticism of young people.) – Why should not we blame, blame others for our failure? After a day, do you summarize what you have done for society, what did you learn before bed? – Why do we have to save, just buy what is needed, and prefer to use goods manufactured by Japan? – Why do we have to practice sports, how many minutes you spend in your 24 hour fund for sport?– Why should we read books? Do you have the habit of reading books anytime and anywhere? If not? – What were you born to do? What did you contribute to society in these years of living on earth? – You have unbroken limbs and brains, why do not you work? Do you eat three meals a day? If so, why do you eat but you do not work? – Do you dare to refuse an offer you think it is bad? – How do your late arrivals affect others? Why do you never go late in your personal interest and often come late in the group activities? – What do you think about the nobility of man? An example of someone around you that is noble. – Have you ever been a mean person? How to escape this way of mean person?…. – What is greed and selfishness? Do you give an example of someone around you that you think is greedy and selfish? The narrow-mindedness. Have you ever had a expression of narrow-mindedness to other people? How will you change? – People need courage and bear responsibility, dare to do. Have you ever been cowardly and did not dare to take responsibility for your doing? Why are you so cowardly? Generosity and forgiveness are also essential. Why civilized people need to forgive others for the first time. If they repeat, should they forgive again? Why stop the relationship with the person with repetition of the third mistake? – How the conservative character have constrained your development? Why are we conservative? What does the self mean? – Do you dare to sacrifice the self for a better community? – Creativity and curiosity. Why do Asians always follow Westerners in technology? What do you do to be creative? What did you create? Commitment and correction. Why are you annoyed when others criticize or point out your mistakes? Have I ever been? How will you modify it? The willingness to sacrifice for others. Why are we willing to sacrifice for others? Who is worthy of our sacrifice? – The habit of criticizing and complaining of non-working people. Have you ever seen something from a negative perspective, blamed someone, and harshly condemned it, but did not realize you also contribute in it?– Envy, jealousy and consequence. Do you recognize others better and more beautiful than you? Do you understand why others are more successful than you? What would you do to be like them instead of jealousy? – What is the true value of a human being? You judge a man through what they have? Money, fame, qualifications, position, ethics, wisdom, humanity ..? – What is public consciousness? List the behaviors we have not done in public? – What is the face? Why do Asian people have a strong face? How will the face help in telling lies? In collective failure, as a member, do you blame the specific person or do you think there is your responsibility in it? Why is there a saying "the country’s poverty is the fault of each citizen” ? How will you correct yourself to contribute to the success of the collective. Currently, many schools and offices in Asian countries also bring these questions to students and their staff to discuss (especially Korea, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwanese territories, Hong Kong, and recently, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia …).